I just wrote a rather lengthy reply to a Programmers StackExchange question which I’d summarize as “why are the types and or methods I want to extend often sealed in common Java and .NET frameworks and libraries?” Its actually titled “Why shouldn’t classes be designed to be ‘open’?’”
My reply is here:
Because they don’t know any better.
The original authors are probably clinging to a misunderstanding of SOLID principles which originated in a confused and complicated C++ world.
I hope you will notice that the ruby, python, and perl worlds don’t have the problems that the answers here claim to be the reason for sealing. Note that its orthogonal to dynamic typing. Access modifiers are easy to work in most (all?) languages. C++ fields can be mucked with by casting to some other type (C++ is more weak). Java and C# can use reflection. Access modifiers make things just difficult enough to prevent you from doing it unless you REALLY want to.
Sealing classes and marking any members private explicitly violates the principle that simple things should be simple and hard things should be possible. Suddenly things that should be simple, aren’t.
I’d encourage you to try to understand the viewpoint of the original authors. Much of it is from an academic idea of encapsulation that has never demonstrated absolute success in the real world. I’ve never seen a framework or library where some developer somewhere didn’t wish it worked slightly differently and didn’t have good reason to change it. There are two possibilities that may have plagued the original software developers which sealed and made members private.
1. Arrogance – they really did believe they were open for extension and closed for modification
2. Complacence – they knew there might be other use cases but decided not to write for those use cases
I think in the corporate framework world, #2 is probably the case. Those C++, Java and .NET frameworks have to be "done" and they have to follow certain guidelines. Those guidelines usually mean sealed types unless the type was explicitly designed as part of a type hierarchy and private members for many things which might be useful for others use.. but since they don’t directly relate to that class, they aren’t exposed. Extracting a new type would be too expensive to support, document, etc…
The entire idea behind access modifiers is that programmers should be protected from themselves. "C programming is bad because it lets you shoot yourself in the foot." It is not a philosophy that I agree with as a programmer.
I much prefer python’s name mangling approach. You can easily (much easier than reflection) replace privates if you need. A great write up on it is available here: http://bytebaker.com/2009/03/31/python-properties-vs-java-access-modifiers/
Ruby’s private modifier is actually more like protected in C# and doesn’t have a private as C# modifier. Protected is a little different. There is great explanation here: http://www.ruby-lang.org/en/documentation/ruby-from-other-languages/
Remember, your static language doesn’t have to conform to the antiquated styles of the code written in that language past.